On January 1, 1914, Lord Frederick Lugard succeeded in the amalgamation of Northern and Southern Provinces of Nigeria to make up for what is now known as the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Frederick Lugard, who had assumed the office of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria high commissioner in 1900, has often been considered the British colonial administrator model.

Trained as an army officer, Frederick Lugard had served in India, Egypt, and East Africa, expelling Arab slave traders from Nyasaland, and establishing the British presence in Uganda.

In 1894, Lugard joined the Royal Niger Company and was sent to Borgu to counter French inroads, and in 1897 he was made responsible for raising the Royal West African Frontier Force from local duties to serve under British officers.

Throughout his term as the High Commissioner of Northern Nigeria, Lugard was busy turning the economic sphere of influence inherited from the Royal Niger Company into a viable territorial body under strong British political control.

Image of Lord Frederick Lugard, Governor-General of Nigeria (1914-1919)
Lord Frederick Lugard, Governor-General of Nigeria (1914-1919).

His aim was to conquer the region as a whole and obtain recognition by its indigenous rulers, particularly the Sokoto Caliphate Fulani emirs, for the British protectorate.

Lugard’s campaign actively suppressed local resistance and used armed force after failure of diplomatic initiatives.

In 1903, Kanem-Bornu surrendered to Lugard’s Armed Forces without a fight. However, Lugard mounted attacks on Kano and Sokoto.

From the point of view of Lugard, clear-cut military victories were important, because, otherwise their surrenders weakened the resistance.

So, why did Lugard join two different countries as one in the same year the First World War began? You can get the full story in the video below…

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